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Aging of rubber products

by:ORK      2022-11-07
In 1885, everyone discovered that the vulcanized rubber subjected to Lashen had cracks during the whole process of embrittlement. At that time, everyone thought that it was caused by direct sunlight, but later found that it was also caused by cracks on rubber products that were not exposed to sunlight. After analysis, it was found that the cracking caused by the vulcanized rubber stretching, which will not be exposed to direct sunlight, is caused by the active oxygen present in the air. At a height of 20-30km away from the road, oxygen molecules can cause the molecular structure of bull gas to produce a layer of atmosphere under the sunlight. Although the ozone concentration in the soil layer is relatively low, the resulting vulcanized rubber talent cannot be ignored, and more and more audiences attach great importance to it. The active oxygen embrittlement of vulcanized rubber is different from the embrittlement caused by other factors. The key is the following main manifestations. (1) The reactive oxygen embrittlement of vulcanized rubber is a surface reaction. The surface reaction of vulcanized rubber that is not under ground stress is tried to be 10-40 molecular structure thick, or (10~50)*10-6 cubic mm thick. (2) When the vulcanized rubber not subjected to tension is exposed to the O3 natural environment, the vulcanized rubber reacts with O3 until the double bond on the surface layer is completely reacted and stops, and the surface layer produces a dark gray hard brittle film with a similar top white shape, making it Matte. When the vulcanized rubber under tension causes active oxygen embrittlement, the surface layer will cause active oxygen cracking. However, according to scientific research, the active oxygen cracking of the vulcanized rubber has a critical value of stress. It is not easy to cause cracking when active oxygen embrittlement occurs, which is a characteristic of vulcanized rubber. (3) When the vulcanized rubber is cracked by active oxygen, the direction of the crack is vertical to the direction of the force, which is the difference between the active oxygen cracking and the cracking caused by photo-oxygen embrittlement. When active oxygen embrittlement is caused, the resulting active oxygen cracking is very specific, similar to the cracking caused by photo-oxygen embrittlement. Embrittlement is a relatively widespread condition in fibrous materials such as vulcanized rubber. It will deteriorate the characteristics of vulcanized rubber and endanger the value and service life of rubber products. The vulcanized rubber seals safety protection management system is to slow down the embrittlement of vulcanized rubber. Increase the useful life of crafts. Vulcanized rubber safety protection management system is mainly antioxidants. Antiaging formulations can be divided into organic chemical antioxidants and physical antioxidants according to the basic principle of efficacy; according to the overall goal of safety protection, they are divided into antioxidants, protective active oxygen agents, light shielding agents, and metal materials. Passivators, etc., can also be classified according to chemical structure. (1) Embrittlement of vulcanized rubber: During the whole process of production, processing, storage or application of raw rubber seals or rubber products, physical and chemical reactions will slowly occur due to the harm of heat, oxygen, light and other clean elements. Its characteristics are reduced and its main use is lost, a condition known as embrittlement of vulcanized rubber. During the embrittlement process of vulcanized rubber, some obvious conditions often occur, such as the appearance of long-term storage of natural rubber, which can be found to become loose, sticky, and black spots; rubber products are deformed, brittle, hard, cracked, Mildew, loss of gloss and color change, etc. In terms of process properties, vulcanized rubber has changes in swelling and thixotropic properties. In terms of physical properties, the index values ​​of tensile strength, tensile strength, impact compressive strength, bending strength, compressibility, and ductility are reduced. (2) The reason for the embrittlement of vulcanized rubber: the embrittlement of vulcanized rubber comes from the effect of its long-term exposure to heat, oxygen, light, mechanical equipment force, radiation sources, organic chemicals, active oxygen in the air and other external factors, making it The biological macromolecular chain produces a chemical reaction, which destroys the original chemical structure of the vulcanized rubber, thereby affecting the characteristics of the vulcanized rubber. The key external factors that cause the embrittlement of vulcanized rubber are physical factors, organic chemical factors and biological factors. Physical elements include heat, light, electricity, ground stress, etc.; organic chemical elements include oxygen, reactive oxygen species, acids, alkalis, salts and metal ions, etc.; biological elements include microbial species (Aspergillus flavus, bacteria), insects ( white ants, etc.). In the whole process of vulcanized rubber seals embrittlement, this external factor usually does not work independently, but only affects each other to speed up the process of vulcanized rubber embrittlement system. For example, the tire sidewall will be immediately affected by various elements such as heat, light, alternating stress and strain, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species during the entire application process. Different handicrafts have different efficacy levels of various elements under different application standards, and their embrittlement conditions are also different. Even if the same handicraft is used in different seasons and regions, the embrittlement status is also different. Therefore, the embrittlement of vulcanized rubber is a comprehensive chemical change caused by a variety of factors. In this element,The most common and important elements of organic chemistry are oxygen and reactive oxygen species; the elements of physics are heat, light, and mechanical stress. The embrittlement of general rubber products is the result of the interaction of one or several elements of them. The most common thermal oxidative embrittlement is followed by reactive oxygen embrittlement, fatigue embrittlement and photooxidative embrittlement.
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