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Thermal damage to common mechanical seals

by:ORK      2022-11-10
The failure of mechanical seals of centrifugal pumps due to overheating is thermal damage failure. The most common thermal damage failures include end face thermal deformation, thermal cracking, blisters, carbonization, loss of elasticity of elastic elements, aging and permanent deformation of rubber parts. , cracks, etc. The thermal deformation of the sealing end face of the centrifugal pump includes local thermal deformation and overall thermal deformation. Many small hot spots and isolated discoloration areas are sometimes found on the sealing end face, which indicates that the seal has been locally deformed and distorted under the influence of high pressure and heat; sometimes there are symmetrical discontinuous bright bands on the sealing end face, which are mainly It is due to irregular cooling that causes local thermal deformation of the end face. Sometimes it is found that the sealing end face is seriously worn on the inside, and the larger the radius, the shallower the contact trace, until it is indistinguishable. The inside edge of the seal ring may chip and bounce. When the shaft is rotating, the seal leaks continuously, and when the shaft is stationary, it does not leak. This is because when the seal is in operation, the outer side is sufficiently cooled, while the inner side has serious friction and heat generation, so that the inner side thermal deformation is greater than the outer side thermal deformation, forming an inner contact type (positive taper angle) end face caused by thermal deformation. Cemented carbide, engineering ceramics, carbon graphite and other brittle material seal rings sometimes have radial cracks on the end face, so that the leakage of the sealing surface increases rapidly, and the pair of parts wears rapidly. This is mostly because the sealing surface is in dry friction and sudden cooling. A thermal damage failure caused by the rapid accumulation of frictional heat on the end face due to interruptions and other reasons. In mechanical seals in high temperature environments, pits and scars are often found on the surface of the graphite ring. This is because when the impregnated resin graphite ring exceeds its allowable temperature, the resin will be carbonized and decomposed to form hard particles and precipitate volatiles, forming scars, greatly increasing friction, and causing high leakage of surface damage. The high temperature environment may reduce the elasticity of the elastic element, so that the closing force of the sealing end face is insufficient, resulting in serious leakage of the sealing end face. High temperature loss of elasticity of metal bellows is a common and typical failure form of this type of mechanical seal. An effective way to avoid this type of failure is to select a reasonable bellows material and perform proper heat treatment. High temperature is an important reason for the aging, cracking and permanent deformation of rubber seals. The aging of rubber is manifested as hardening of rubber, reduction of strength and elasticity, and cracking in severe cases, resulting in loss of sealing performance. In high temperature fluids, there is a danger that the rubber seals ring will continue to vulcanize, eventually causing it to lose elasticity and leak. When the sealing ring is in high temperature for a long time, it will become the same shape as the groove. When the temperature remains unchanged, it can also play a sealing role; but when the temperature is lowered, the sealing ring shrinks quickly, forming a leakage channel and causing leakage. Therefore, attention should be paid to the use temperature of various types of rubber, and prolonged use at extreme temperatures should be avoided. Company website:
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