Objective: to study the acute effect of wearing a swimming mirror on intraocular pressure (IOP).
Methods: This study consists of experimental and validation studies.
Drill holes on the surface of 13 different goggles in order to measure intraocular pressure by flattening tension.
Eye mask before wear, 2 minutes after eye mask application, 20 minutes after eye mask application and intraocular pressure after eye mask removal.
Pilot research ((B)Goggle 12 and (C)
Goggle 13 has a continuous eye cup with no rubber seal between the eyes; (D)
Goggle 5 is a racing car goggle without rubber seal; (E)
Subjects wearing goggles were measured for flattening tension, and the holes of the goggles passed through the surface of the goggles.
Several parameters were measured for each goggles (fig 2).
From the rubber seal to the rubber seal, the width of the vertical and horizontal goggles is measured inside each eyepiece.
The surface area of the goggles is defined as the skin area surrounded by each eyepiece and assumed to be oval.
Calculation Formula of ellipse area [
Vertical width × horizontal width × π/4]
Used to calculate the face area of goggles. The horizontal-to-
The width ratio of the vertical goggles is also calculated.
The No. 5 goggles do not have rubber seals
, and the diameter of the goggles is measured inside the rigid plastic cup.
Goggles 12 and 13 do not have contact points on the nose bridge, so we measured the horizontal width to the midpoint.
The depth of the rubber seal is measured at four points evenly distributed around each goggles, and the width of the rubber seal is measured at eight positions around the surface of all goggles.
The mean values of these measurements are used for analysis.
Download figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpoint figure 2, goggles photos with arrows, indicating the vertical width, horizontal width and rubber seal width of the goggles on the left, and rubber seal depth on the right
Orbital measurements measure the edge width of the vertical and horizontal tracks using the cursor calipers, and measure the primary position of each subject on the pupil.
The orbital area is calculated by vertical width × horizontal width × π/4. The horizontal-to-
The vertical rail width ratio is also calculated.
Age, gender, central corneal thickness (
Pocket el in Clermont, France, Pocket Pach 2)
Each topic is also recorded.
Baseline IOPThe determination the purpose of this study was to measure the additional effects of wearing goggles on intraocular pressure.
Tonographic studies show that increased intraocular pressure caused by applied force can lead to an increase in the outlet of the eye room water, and when the force is removed, the intraocular pressure will be temporarily reduced.
9 to illustrate any tone effect of swimming goggles wearing, we measured the intraocular pressure before and after the goggles were worn, and then the mean values of these two measurements were used as the baseline intraocular pressure.
Changes in intraocular pressure caused by wear of swim goggles are calculated based on baseline intraocular pressure.
We also analyzed the difference between the intraocular pressure recorded before and after the goggles were removed.
In the pilot study, 15 subjects were recruited from a local swimming club.
Install below 0.
5% proxymetacine and eyes-
Drip, before wearing the goggles, the intraocular pressure of each eye was measured using Goldmann pressure gauge.
Subjects were instructed to wear each goggles in a random order and adjust them as they did when entering the pool.
The intraocular pressure was measured two minutes after they adjusted the goggles and were comfortable (fig 1E).
Then remove these goggles and measure the intraocular pressure on another set after 2 minutes.
This sequence was repeated before each of the five goggles was tested.
Five minutes after the fifth goggles were taken out, the intraocular pressure was recorded and no goggles were worn.
14 subjects were then instructed to wear a small one (no. 1)or large (no. 4)
The width goggles are 20 minutes and the intraocular pressure is measured at this time.
Five minutes after removing the goggles, measure the intraocular pressure again.
Validation studies included testing 8 other goggles on 20 new subjects.
The program is similar to the pilot study and has the following differences.
Each subject wears two or three sets of goggles, and the third set is optional according to the subject\'s time commitment.
Measure the intraocular pressure before the goggles are applied, after 2 minutes of wear and after 20 minutes of wear.
Then remove the goggles and record another intraocular pressure measurement after 5 minutes.
The subjects then applied the second or third goggles and used the same intraocular pressure measurement protocol.
Only the right eye data is used for statistical analysis and the mean and standard deviations of the measurements are given.
SigmaStat is used for all calculations (
Richmond, California, Point Bharat).
Paired Student t-test before and after intervention, reporting a 95% confidence interval (CI), was used.
Using 2-minute pilot study data, multiple linear regression models were used to study important variables related to changes in intraocular pressure.
According to gender, age, face area, level of goggles-to-
Width ratio of vertical goggles, average rubber width, average rubber depth, central corneal thickness, orbital area, horizontal-to-
Vertical rail width ratio and baseline intraocular pressure.
Sex as a binary variable (
1 male and 0 female).
The model is calculated repeatedly, removing the least important variable until only the important variable is retained (p
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